U.S. Geological Survey
Water-Resources Investigations Report 86-4095, 1987, 517 p.
The Heat- and Solute-Transport Program (HST3D) simulates ground-water flow and associated heat and solute transport in three dimensions. The HST3D program may be used for analysis of problems such as those related to sub-surface-waste injection, landfill leaching, saltwater intrusion, freshwater recharge and recovery, radioactive-waste disposal, hot-water geothermal systems, and subsurface-energy storage. The three governing equations are coupled through the interstitial pore velocity, the dependence of the fluid density on pressure, temperature, and solute-mass fraction, and the dependence of the fluid viscosity on temperature and solute-mass fraction. The solute-transport equation is for only a single, solute species with possible linear-equilibrium sorption and linear decay. Finite-difference techniques are used to discretize the governing equations using a point-distributed grid. The flow-, heat- and solute-transport equations are solved, in turn, after a partial Gauss-reduction scheme is used to modify them. The modified equations are more tightly coupled and have better stability for the numerical solutions.
The basic source-sink term represents wells. A complex well-flow model may be used to simulate specified flow rate and pressure conditions at the land surface or within the aquifer, with or without pressure and flow-rate constraints. Boundary-condition types offered include specified value, specified flux, leakage, heat conduction, an approximate free surface, and two types of aquifer-influence functions. All boundary conditions can be functions of time.
Two techniques are available for solution of the finite-difference matrix equations. One technique is a direct-elimination solver, using equations reordered by alternating diagonal planes. The other technique is an iterative solver, using two-line successive overrelaxation. A restart option is available for storing intermediate results and restarting the simulation at an intermediate time with modified boundary conditions. This feature also can be used as protection against computer-system failure.
Data input and output may be in metric (SI) units or U.S. customary units. Output may include tables of dependent variables and parameters, zoned-contour maps, and plots of the dependent variables versus time. The HST3D program is a descendant of the Survey Waste Injection Program (SWIP) written for the U.S. Geological Survey under contract.